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The menacing assaults on science, FDA, CDC, and health of the US public

While health authorities sounded early warnings concerning COVID-19 [1The LancetCOVID-19: too little, too late?.Lancet. 2020; 395: 755https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30522-5Summary Full Text Full Text PDF PubMed Scopus (34) Google Scholar], the United States (US) government practised “pandemic politics” and escalated menacing assaults on science, including repeated denials of epidemic principles of mitigation and containment. The first on December 31, 2019 was that the virus would not enter the US. A second on January 20, 2020 following introduction of the first US case from Wuhan, China was that “the virus would not spread.” A third on February 26 was that the 15 cases would “go away” when temperatures climbed [2Hennekens C.H. George S. Adirim T.A. Johnson H. Maki D.G. The emerging pandemic of coronavirus and the urgent need for public health leadership.Am J Med. 2020; 133: 648-650https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2020.03.001Summary Full Text Full Text PDF PubMed Scopus (2) Google Scholar]. A fourth is continued and repeated denials of clear benefits of masking [3Solano J.J. Maki D.G. Adirim T.A. Shih R.D. Hennekens C.H. Public health strategies contain and mitigate COVID-19: a tale of two democracies.Am J Med. 2020; ([published online ahead of print, 2020 Aug 15]) (S0002-9343(20)30699-9)https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2020.08.001Summary Full Text Full Text PDF Scopus (0) Google Scholar].
covid-19
usa
misinformation
transmission
crisis management
general public
public opinion
science denial
fda
cdc
face mask
effectiveness
danger
cdc, doctor, trump, eviction, official
tackle, european, fund, database, indonesia
COVID-19: France grapples with the pragmatics of isolation

The current phase of the COVID-19 pandemic is forcing countries to choose between two strategies: one based on individual responsibility, and the other on coercive measures—the carrot and stick of popular analogy.Coercive isolation might be justified during emergencies, but its effectiveness during a long-term management phase is unproven in liberal democracies. If isolation is imposed, people might either avoid testing and withhold contact information, or reject COVID-19 regulations entirely. In France, resistance to coercive interventions could plausibly fuse with protest movements such as the gilets jaunes (yellow vests).
covid-19
compliance
strategy
public opinion
france
isolation
struggle
challenge
protest
incentive
opinion, science, society, insight, economist
political, attitude, partisan, democracy, ideology
Extended Editorial

Mixed-method research to endorse methodological pluralism within educational technology research – easier said than done?
covid-19
education
public health
technology
challenge
scientific practice
conference, webinar, series, acm, ci'20
peer, publish, publication, review, preregistration
The need for detailed COVID-19 data in Spain

The COVID-19 epidemic has impacted the population of Spain far more than most feared or projected. As of Sept 25, 2020, more than 700 000 individuals had tested positive, and more than 31 000 deaths with a positive test had been recorded.1Centro de Coordinación de Alertas y Emergencias SanitariasActualización no 215. Enfermedad por el coronavirus (COVID-19).https://www.mscbs.gob.es/profesionales/saludPublica/ccayes/alertasActual/nCov/documentos/Actualizacion_215_COVID-19.pdfDate: Sept 25, 2020Date accessed: September 29, 2020Google Scholar Earlier in this pandemic, the Spanish Ministry of Health provided data by age and sex for the whole country in its daily COVID-19 situation updates (in Adobe PDF format), as well as daily data on total hospitalisations, intensive care unit admissions, discharges, and deaths by region. However, since May 19, 2020, disaggregated data have not been provided in the daily updates.1Centro de Coordinación de Alertas y Emergencias SanitariasActualización no 215. Enfermedad por el coronavirus (COVID-19).https://www.mscbs.gob.es/profesionales/saludPublica/ccayes/alertasActual/nCov/documentos/Actualizacion_215_COVID-19.pdfDate: Sept 25, 2020Date accessed: September 29, 2020Google Scholar In recent months, data improvements have been made by the National Centre of Epidemiology (CNE), and open data on total counts by region are updated and revised daily.2Centro Nacional de EpidemiologíaDatos notificados a la Red Nacional de Vigilancia Epidemiológica (RENAVES).https://cnecovid.isciii.es/covid19/#documentaci%C3%B3n-y-datosDate: 2020Date accessed: September 29, 2020Google Scholar However, at the time of writing, age-specific data from the CNE is given only in weekly publications (as Adobe PDF files), without geographic detail or retrospective corrections, and with cumulative counts tabulated only from mid-May onwards. Therefore, properly merging age-specific time series after the first wave is difficult or impossible.
covid-19
hospitalization
official data
epidemiology
spain
case number
age distribution
mortality
open data
transparency
death, england, estimate, excess, wale
tackle, european, fund, database, indonesia
Use caution when applying behavioural science to policy

Social and behavioural scientists have attempted to speak to the COVID-19 crisis. But is behavioural research on COVID-19 suitable for making policy decisions? We offer a taxonomy that lets our science advance in ‘evidence readiness levels’ to be suitable for policy. We caution practitioners to take extreme care translating our findings to applications.
covid-19
safety
behavioral science
policy
empirical evidence
caution
readiness
application
framework
informed decision making
humanity, statistic, wrong, communicate, fit
opinion, science, society, insight, economist
Gender, face mask perceptions, and face mask wearing: Are men being dangerous during the COVID-19 pandemic?

Recent popular press authors have proposed that men are less likely to wear face masks during the COVID-19 pandemic. We investigate this notion in the current article by analyzing three extant datasets. We also assess the mediating effect of eight different face mask perceptions in the relation between gender and face mask wearing via the Face Mask Perceptions Scale. Across the three datasets, the sample-size weighted meta-analytic correlation between gender and face mask wearing was not statistically significant, and no face mask perception was a consistent mediator of this effect. Gender did have significant relations with two face mask perceptions, however. Men were more likely to perceive face masks as infringing on their independence, whereas women were more likely to perceive face masks as uncomfortable. Therefore, although gender does not relate to whether a person wears a face mask, it does relate to face mask perceptions. We offer several suggestions for research and practice from these results, such as the positioning of face mask wearing alongside passive health behaviors, the broader study of face mask perceptions' outcomes beyond face mask wearing, as well as the creation of interventions to target differing face mask perceptions across genders.
covid-19
big data
compliance
policy
safety behavior
face mask
gender
perception
news, misinformation, internet, medium, fake
intention, behavior, message, guideline, preventive
COVID-19: the deadly threat of misinformation

An Editorial1The Lancet Infectious DiseasesThe COVID-19 infodemic.Lancet Infect Dis. 2020; 20: 875Summary Full Text Full Text PDF PubMed Scopus (0) Google Scholar published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases addressed the COVID-19 infodemic. An infodemic is described by WHO as an “overabundance of information—some accurate and some not—that occurs during an epidemic”,2WHOInfodemic management—infodemiology.https://www.who.int/teams/risk-communication/infodemic-managementDate: 2020Date accessed: August 4, 2020Google Scholar and WHO is dealing with this issue proactively.3Tangcharoensathien V Calleja N Nguyen T et al.Framework for managing the COVID-19 infodemic: methods and results of an online, crowdsourced WHO technical consultation.J Med Internet Res. 2020; 22e19659Crossref PubMed Scopus (4) Google Scholar The UN is also focusing on misinformation in connection with COVID-19, stating that misinformation is a virus and launching an initiative called Verified “to provide content that cuts through the noise to deliver life-saving information, fact-based advice and stories from the best of humanity”.4
covid-19
communication
misinformation
who
empirical evidence
strategy
transparency
threat
fact checking
verification
conference, webinar, series, acm, ci'20
opinion, science, society, insight, economist
Narrative review of non-pharmaceutical behavioural measures for the prevention of COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) based on the Health-EDRM framework

IntroductionNon-pharmaceutical measures to facilitate a response to the COVID-19 pandemic, a disease caused by novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, are urgently needed. Using the World Health Organization (WHO) health emergency and disaster risk management (health-EDRM) framework, behavioural measures for droplet-borne communicable diseases and their enabling and limiting factors at various implementation levels were evaluated.Sources of dataKeyword search was conducted in PubMed, Google Scholar, Embase, Medline, Science Direct, WHO and CDC online publication databases. Using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine review criteria, 10 bottom-up, non-pharmaceutical prevention measures from 104 English-language articles, which published between January 2000 and May 2020, were identified and examined.Areas of agreementEvidence-guided behavioural measures against transmission of COVID-19 in global at-risk communities were identified, including regular handwashing, wearing face masks and avoiding crowds and gatherings.Areas of concernStrong evidence-based systematic behavioural studies for COVID-19 prevention are lacking.Growing pointsVery limited research publications are available for non-pharmaceutical measures to facilitate pandemic response.Areas timely for researchResearch with strong implementation feasibility that targets resource-poor settings with low baseline health-EDRM capacity is urgently needed.
covid-19
social distancing
non-pharmaceutical intervention
review
safety behavior
face mask
effectiveness
framework
transmission prevention
public health response
hand washing
vaccination, adherence, hesitancy, uptake, sectional
tackle, european, fund, database, indonesia
SARS-CoV-2: how safe is it to fly and what can be done to enhance protection?

With lockdown restrictions over coronavirus disease 2019 being relaxed, airlines are returning to the skies. Published evidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus 2 transmission on aircraft is limited, but in-flight transmission of respiratory infections such as tuberculosis, influenza and SARS has been well described. Risk factors include proximity to index patients and sitting in aisle seats. Personal protection on aircraft could be enhanced by always wearing a well-fitting face mask and face shield or sunglasses, wiping surfaces and hands with alcohol-based sanitizers, not touching the face, not queuing for washrooms, changing seats if nearby passengers are coughing and choosing a window rather than an aisle seat.
covid-19
safety
protection
social distancing
face mask
transmission prevention
flight
transport
risk mitigation
airborne, air, wear, mask, aerosol
herd, immunity, far, hope, know
Fighting COVID-19: social capital and community mobilisation in Hong Kong
Oct. 7, 2020 · · Original resource · article

Purpose Focussing on the early phase of the COVID-19 outbreak in Hong Kong, when the infection rate was relatively low, this paper aims to explore the role of social capital in fighting the novel coronavirus. Design/methodology/approach This is a discussion paper that draws evidence from current scholarly literature and other commentaries, government policies and the personal observation of the author. The main conceptual tool used in the study is Szreter and Woolcock (2004) three-dimensional framework of social capital. Findings This paper suggests that whilst the experience of fighting SARS as early as 2003 equipped Hong Kong people with adequate knowledge of virus prevention, efforts to control COVID-19 also benefited from social capital developed during the prolonged social protest since 2019. People belonging to the pro-democracy camp took the initiative to deliver facemasks and advocate hygiene measures in Hong Kong, demonstrating strong community mobilisation. This led to the emergence of bonding and bridging social capital (but not linking social capital) in local society, based substantially on similarity in political orientation. Originality/value The use of Szreter and Woolcock (2004) three-dimensional framework for examining social capital provides a new perspective on the contribution of social network analysis to coronavirus protective measures.
covid-19
sars
compliance
safety behavior
face mask
public health response
hong kong
community
observation
hygiene
political orientation
sociology
minority, racial, violence, woman, capital
tackle, european, fund, database, indonesia