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What Happens to Cities When the Arts Go Dark?
Sept. 25, 2020 · · Original resource · article

For decades, cities relied on performing arts groups to help drive revitalization. Now nearly every company in the country has been shuttered for months, acting as a drag on local business.
covid-19
cities
employment
country, surge, city, economy, rich
like, ease, stop, critic, away
Nothing to speak of: the horror of a world without gossip
Aug. 9, 2020 · · Original resource · article

The pandemic has put paid to the thrill of recounting illicit activities. And we’re all the poorer for it
covid-19
step, offline, fight, hardcover, horton
like, ease, stop, critic, away
Experimental infection of domestic dogs and cats with SARS-CoV-2: Pathogenesis, transmission, and response to reexposure in cats

The pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has reached nearly every country in the world with extraordinary person-to-person transmission. The most likely original source of the virus was spillover from an animal reservoir and subsequent adaptation to humans sometime during the winter of 2019 in Wuhan Province, China. Because of its genetic similarity to SARS-CoV-1, it is probable that this novel virus has a similar host range and receptor specificity. Due to concern for human–pet transmission, we investigated the susceptibility of domestic cats and dogs to infection and potential for infected cats to transmit to naive cats. We report that cats are highly susceptible to infection, with a prolonged period of oral and nasal viral shedding that is not accompanied by clinical signs, and are capable of direct contact transmission to other cats. These studies confirm that cats are susceptible to productive SARS-CoV-2 infection, but are unlikely to develop clinical disease. Further, we document that cats developed a robust neutralizing antibody response that prevented reinfection following a second viral challenge. Conversely, we found that dogs do not shed virus following infection but do seroconvert and mount an antiviral neutralizing antibody response. There is currently no evidence that cats or dogs play a significant role in human infection; however, reverse zoonosis is possible if infected owners expose their domestic pets to the virus during acute infection. Resistance to reinfection holds promise that a vaccine strategy may protect cats and, by extension, humans.
covid-19
infection
transmission
animal
immune response
cell, antibody, immune, cov-2-specific, epitope
sars, respiratory, clinical, cov, syndrome
False-positive COVID-19 results: hidden problems and costs

RT-PCR tests to detect severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA are the operational gold standard for detecting COVID-19 disease in clinical practice. RT-PCR assays in the UK have analytical sensitivity and specificity of greater than 95%, but no single gold standard assay exists.1Watson J Whiting PF Brush JE Interpreting a covid-19 test result.BMJ. 2020; 369m1808PubMed Google Scholar,  2Mayers C Baker K Impact of false-positives and false-negatives in the UK's COVID-19 RT-PCR testing programme.https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/895843/S0519_Impact_of_false_positives_and_negatives.pdfDate: June 3, 2020Date accessed: August 8, 2020Google Scholar New assays are verified across panels of material, confirmed as COVID-19 by multiple testing with other assays, together with a consistent clinical and radiological picture. These new assays are often tested under idealised conditions with hospital samples containing higher viral loads than those from asymptomatic individuals living in the community. As such, diagnostic or operational performance of swab tests in the real world might differ substantially from the analytical sensitivity and specificity.2
covid-19
testing
accuracy
false positive
swab test
bayesian, causal, measurement, replication, statistical
screen, test, pool, saliva, surveillance
Online InformationSeeking and Disease Prevention Intent During COVID-19 Outbreak

Guided by the risk information seeking and processing (RISP) model, this study aims to examine the key determinants that predispose individuals’ online information seeking behavior and prevention intent during the COVID-19 outbreak. Through an online survey with 741 respondents in China, results indicate that affective responses, informational subjective norms, and information insufficiency are positively related to online information seeking about COVID-19. Furthermore, online information seeking is positively associated with prevention intent, and attitude toward prevention partially mediates this association. Finally, theoretical and practical implications of this study are discussed in the context of COVID-19.
covid-19
china
attitude
modeling
survey
transmission prevention
intention
protective behavior
news, misinformation, internet, medium, fake
intention, behavior, message, guideline, preventive
Creating Citizen Choice Architects
Sept. 28, 2020 · · Original resource · article

Incorporating nudging and other behavioral insights from psychological science into public policy has become de rigueur for governments around the world. Nudging was originally developed as an attempt to reconcile state intervention and individual liberty. It is based on the assumption that people’s cognitive abilities and self-control are so limited relative to the complexity of the world that structural changes to their environments, or “choice architectures,” are often required for them to act in their own best interest.
government
nudging
behavioural science
psychological science
public policy
opinion, science, society, insight, economist
political, attitude, partisan, democracy, ideology
Germany Has Its Own Dr. Fauci—and Actually Follows His Advice
Sept. 28, 2020 · · Original resource · article

Christian Drosten helped spare his country from the worst of Covid. Now he’s worried about the second wave.
covid-19
testing
second wave
germany
advice
cdc, doctor, trump, eviction, official
step, offline, fight, hardcover, horton
Systematic evaluation and external validation of 22 prognostic models among hospitalised adults with COVID-19: An observational cohort study

Background The number of proposed prognostic models for COVID-19 is growing rapidly, but it is unknown whether any are suitable for widespread clinical implementation.Methods We independently externally validated the performance candidate prognostic models, identified through a living systematic review, among consecutive adults admitted to hospital with a final diagnosis of COVID-19. We reconstructed candidate models as per original descriptions and evaluated performance for their original intended outcomes using predictors measured at admission. We assessed discrimination, calibration and net benefit, compared to the default strategies of treating all and no patients, and against the most discriminating predictor in univariable analyses.Results We tested 22 candidate prognostic models among 411 participants with COVID-19, of whom 180 (43.8%) and 115 (28.0%) met the endpoints of clinical deterioration and mortality, respectively. Highest areas under receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curves were achieved by the NEWS2 score for prediction of deterioration over 24 h (0.78; 95% CI 0.73–0.83), and a novel model for prediction of deterioration <14 days from admission (0.78; 0.74–0.82). The most discriminating univariable predictors were admission oxygen saturation on room air for in-hospital deterioration (AUROC 0.76; 0.71–0.81), and age for in-hospital mortality (AUROC 0.76; 0.71–0.81). No prognostic model demonstrated consistently higher net benefit than these univariable predictors, across a range of threshold probabilities.Conclusions Admission oxygen saturation on room air and patient age are strong predictors of deterioration and mortality among hospitalised adults with COVID-19, respectively. None of the prognostic models evaluated here offered incremental value for patient stratification to these univariable predictors.
covid-19
modeling
evaluation
prognosis
observational study
predictor
age
death, england, estimate, excess, wale
patient, hydroxychloroquine, cohort, mortality, observational
People With Disabilities Are Getting Sidelined in Pandemic Aid Talks — Again
Sept. 25, 2020 · · Original resource · article

Speaking at a campaign rally in Ohio on Tuesday, President Trump doubled down on previous comments he’s made downplaying the severity of COVID-19, arguing that the coronavirus “affects virtually nobody,” except the elderly and those with “other problems.” The president’s words categorically dismissed the importance of protecting people with preexisting health issues, including more than a quarter of the U.S. population who were born with or have acquired a disability.
covid-19
usa
discrimination
cdc, doctor, trump, eviction, official
like, ease, stop, critic, away
Lessons learnt from easing COVID-19 restrictions: an analysis of countries and regions in Asia Pacific and Europe

The COVID-19 pandemic is an unprecedented global crisis. Many countries have implemented restrictions on population movement to slow the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and prevent health systems from becoming overwhelmed; some have instituted full or partial lockdowns. However, lockdowns and other extreme restrictions cannot be sustained for the long term in the hope that there will be an effective vaccine or treatment for COVID-19. Governments worldwide now face the common challenge of easing lockdowns and restrictions while balancing various health, social, and economic concerns. To facilitate cross-country learning, this Health Policy paper uses an adapted framework to examine the approaches taken by nine high-income countries and regions that have started to ease COVID-19 restrictions: five in the Asia Pacific region (ie, Hong Kong [Special Administrative Region], Japan, New Zealand, Singapore, and South Korea) and four in Europe (ie, Germany, Norway, Spain, and the UK). This comparative analysis presents important lessons to be learnt from the experiences of these countries and regions. Although the future of the virus is unknown at present, countries should continue to share their experiences, shield populations who are at risk, and suppress transmission to save lives.
covid-19
non-pharmaceutical intervention
strategy
loosening restrictions
transmission prevention
government response
healthcare system
lockdown cessation
international comparison
experience
tackle, european, fund, database, indonesia
mobility, crime, gdp, employment, restriction