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Crowdsourcing preprint reviews: PREreview and COS call for feedback on infrastructure integration
Sept. 24, 2020 · · Original resource · article

It’s #PeerReviewWeek, that time of the year when scholarly communication folks draw  attention to peer review. The 2020 theme is “Trust in Peer Review,” focusing  on how peer review is done and why it builds trust in research. 
trust
crowdsourcing
feedback
research
peer, publish, publication, review, preregistration
library, open, preservation, psa, tool
The complexities of SARS-CoV-2 serology

Diagnosing previous infection with respiratory viruses is challenging. Our understanding of individual and population-level immunity to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains incomplete and developing reliable serological assays to detect previous infection has been an intense focus of the global scientific effort. For public health planning we need scalable assays validated against large banks of samples from individuals who had proven seasonal (non-severe acute respiratory syndrome) coronaviruses and those who had well characterised symptomatic and asymptomatic confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. False-positive results, due to cross-reactivity with seasonal coronaviruses, are important to avoid, particularly if seropositive-individuals consider themselves immune
covid-19
immunity
protection
uncertainty
challenge
serology
complexity
asymptomatic infection
scalability
seasonality
sars, respiratory, clinical, cov, syndrome
screen, test, pool, saliva, surveillance
Diagnosis of physical and mental health conditions in primary care during the COVID-19 pandemic: a retrospective cohort study

BackgroundTo date, research on the indirect impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the health of the population and the health-care system is scarce. We aimed to investigate the indirect effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on general practice health-care usage, and the subsequent diagnoses of common physical and mental health conditions in a deprived UK population.MethodsWe did a retrospective cohort study using routinely collected primary care data that was recorded in the Salford Integrated Record between Jan 1, 2010, and May 31, 2020. We extracted the weekly number of clinical codes entered into patient records overall, and for six high-level categories: symptoms and observations, diagnoses, prescriptions, operations and procedures, laboratory tests, and other diagnostic procedures. Negative binomial regression models were applied to monthly counts of first diagnoses of common conditions (common mental health problems, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and cancer), and corresponding first prescriptions of medications indicative of these conditions. We used these models to predict the expected numbers of first diagnoses and first prescriptions between March 1 and May 31, 2020, which were then compared with the observed numbers for the same time period.FindingsBetween March 1 and May 31, 2020, 1073 first diagnoses of common mental health problems were reported compared with 2147 expected cases (95% CI 1821 to 2489) based on preceding years, representing a 50·0% reduction (95% CI 41·1 to 56·9). Compared with expected numbers, 456 fewer diagnoses of circulatory system diseases (43·3% reduction, 95% CI 29·6 to 53·5), and 135 fewer type 2 diabetes diagnoses (49·0% reduction, 23·8 to 63·1) were observed. The number of first prescriptions of associated medications was also lower than expected for the same time period. However, the gap between observed and expected cancer diagnoses (31 fewer; 16·0% reduction, −18·1 to 36·6) during this time period was not statistically significant.InterpretationIn this deprived urban population, diagnoses of common conditions decreased substantially between March and May 2020, suggesting a large number of patients have undiagnosed conditions. A rebound in future workload could be imminent as COVID-19 restrictions ease and patients with undiagnosed conditions or delayed diagnosis present to primary and secondary health-care services. Such services should prioritise the diagnosis and treatment of these patients to mitigate potential indirect harms to protect public health.
covid-19
uk
public health
mental health
diagnosis
physical health
vulnerable
treatment
death, england, estimate, excess, wale
patient, hydroxychloroquine, cohort, mortality, observational
The Riyadh Declaration: the role of digital health in fighting pandemics

The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed weaknesses in health and care systems and global public health responses, some of which can be addressed through data and digital science. The Riyadh Declaration on Digital Health was formulated during the Riyadh Global Digital Health Summit, Aug 11–12, 2020, a landmark forum that highlighted the importance of digital technology, data, and innovation for resilient global health and care systems.
covid-19
communication
misinformation
data science
technology
public health response
healthcare system
recommendation
opinion, science, society, insight, economist
tackle, european, fund, database, indonesia
Impact of COVID-19 on Immunization Services for Maternal and Infant Vaccines: Results of a Survey Conducted by Imprint—The Immunising Pregnant Women and Infants Network

The COVID-19 pandemic response has caused disruption to healthcare services globally, including to routine immunizations. To understand immunization service interruptions specifically for maternal, neonatal and infant vaccines, we captured the local experiences of members of the Immunising Pregnant Women and Infants Network (IMPRINT) by conducting an online survey over 2-weeks in April 2020. IMPRINT is a global network of clinicians and scientists working in maternal and neonatal vaccinology. The survey included discrete questions to quantify the extent of disruption as well as free-text options to explore the reasons behind reported disruptions. Of the 48 responses received, the majority (75%) were from low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs). Of all respondents, 50% or more reported issues with vaccine delivery within their country. Thematic analysis identified three key themes behind immunization disruption: “access” issues, e.g., logistical barriers, “provider” issues, e.g., staff shortages and user “concern” about attending immunization appointments due to COVID-19 fear. Access and provider issues were more commonly reported by LMIC respondents. Overall, respondents reported uncertainty among parents and healthcare providers regarding routine immunization. We conclude that further quantification of routine vaccination disruption is needed, alongside health service prioritization, logistical support and targeted communication strategies to reinforce routine immunizations during the COVID-19 response.
covid-19
vaccine
pandemic
immunization
outdoor, student, education, enthusiast, socio
vaccination, adherence, hesitancy, uptake, sectional
Improving data access democratizes and diversifies science

The foundation of the scientific method rests on access to data, and yet such access is often restricted or costly. We investigate how improved data access shifts the quantity, quality, and diversity of scientific research. We examine the impact of reductions in cost and sharing restrictions for satellite imagery data from NASA’s Landsat program (the longest record of remote-sensing observations of the Earth) on academic science using a sample of about 24,000 Landsat publications by over 34,000 authors matched to almost 3,000 unique study locations. Analyses show that improved access had a substantial and positive effect on the quantity and quality of Landsat-enabled science. Improved data access also democratizes science by disproportionately helping scientists from the developing world and lower-ranked institutions to publish using Landsat data. This democratization in turn increases the geographic and topical diversity of Landsat-enabled research. Scientists who start using Landsat data after access is improved tend to focus on previously understudied regions close to their home location and introduce novel research topics. These findings suggest that policies that improve access to valuable scientific data may promote scientific progress, reduce inequality among scientists, and increase the diversity of scientific research.
open data
transparency
metascience
scientific method
open science
democracy
publication
accessibility
developing world
innovation
machine, twitter, learn, technology, application
peer, publish, publication, review, preregistration
Why has COVID-19 hit different European Union economies so differently?
Sept. 22, 2020 · · Original resource · article

All European Union countries are undergoing severe output losses as a consequence of COVID-19, but some have been hurt more than others. Factors potentially influencing the degree of economic contraction include the severity of lockdown measures, the structure of national economies, public indebtedness, and the quality of governance in different countries. With the exception of public indebtedness, we find all these factors are significant to varying degrees.
covid-19
europe
economic impact
country, surge, city, economy, rich
mobility, crime, gdp, employment, restriction
Covid-19: Experts divide into two camps of action—shielding versus blanket policies
Sept. 21, 2020 · · Original resource · article · DOI: 10.1136/bmj.m3702

COVID-19: open, reasoned, detailed, discussion of the options is overdue and welcome At last, differing perspectives are being aired. This is healthy. People are mostly well educated and understand the situation, and are stoical. They and their elected representatives in Parliament must no longer be sidelined. We must hear their voice. However, there is no reason to divide into camps, and I do not see myself as being in one. As one of those calling for public debate and involvement including on the issue of population immunity, a phrase which should replace herd immunity for human populations, I welcome this exchange of knowledge and opinion.
covid-19
safety
communication
immunity
discussion
strategy
expert
shielding
humanity, statistic, wrong, communicate, fit
opinion, science, society, insight, economist
Immune life history, vaccination, and the dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 over the next 5 years

The future trajectory of the Covid-19 pandemic hinges on the dynamics of adaptive immunity against SARS-CoV2; however, salient features of the immune response elicited by natural infection or vaccination are still uncertain. We use simple epidemiological models to explore estimates for the magnitude and timing of future Covid-19 cases given different protective efficacy and duration of the adaptive immune response to SARS-CoV-2, as well as its interaction with vaccines and nonpharmaceutical interventions. We find that variations in the immune response to primary SARS-CoV-2 infections and a potential vaccine can lead to dramatically different immune landscapes and burdens of critically severe cases, ranging from sustained epidemics to near elimination. Our findings illustrate likely complexities in future Covid-19 dynamics, and highlight the importance of immunological characterization beyond the measurement of active infections for adequately projecting the immune landscape generated by SARS-CoV-2 infections.
covid-19
protection
non-pharmaceutical intervention
epidemiology
modeling
prediction
dynamics
vaccination
scenario analysis
cell, antibody, immune, cov-2-specific, epitope
sars, respiratory, clinical, cov, syndrome
Vaccines — lessons from three centuries of protest
Sept. 21, 2020 · · Original resource · article

Immunization has always been a proxy for wider fears about social control, a history reminds us
covid-19
public health
immunization
protest
has
vaccines
interdependence
ann
like, ease, stop, critic, away
herd, immunity, far, hope, know