SciBeh-Topic-Visualization

stress, psychological, emotion, depressive, cope

Topic 16

stress psychological emotion depressive cope emotional mood symptom negative adolescent daily italian moderate prosocial affect

Big Five Traits as Predictors of Stressfulness During the COVID-19 Pandemic

This study examined the Big Five personality traits as predictors of individual differences and changes in the perceived stressfulness of the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany between early April 2020 and early September 2020. This timeframe includes the first national “lockdown,” the period of “easing” of restrictions, and the summer vacation period. Data were collected from n = 588 full-time employees, who provided baseline data on their personality traits in early December 2019, and then later provided data on perceived stressfulness of the COVID-19 pandemic at five time points, spanning six months. Consistent with expectations based on event and transition theories, results showed that, on average, perceived stressfulness declined between early April 2020 and early September 2020. Moreover, this effect was stronger between early April 2020 and early July 2020. Hypotheses based on the differential reactivity model of personality and stress were partially supported. Emotional stability was associated with lower, and extraversion associated with higher, average levels of perceived stressfulness. Finally, extraversion was associated with increases (i.e., positive trajectories) in perceived stressfulness between early April 2020 and early July 2020 and decreases (i.e., negative trajectories) in perceived stressfulness between early July 2020 and early September 2020.
covid-19
pandemic
behaviour science
germany
personality
stress, psychological, emotion, depressive, cope
longitudinal, depression, anxiety, distress, association
Emotion Regulation and Psychological and Physical Health during a Nationwide COVID-19 Lockdown

The COVID-19 pandemic poses considerable challenges that threaten health and well-being. Initial data supports that many people experienced elevated psychological distress as the pandemic emerged. Yet, prior examinations of average changes in well-being fail to identify who is at greater risk for poor psychological health. The aim of the current research was to examine whether the use of different emotion regulation strategies (emotional suppression, rumination, cognitive reappraisal) predicted residual changes in psychological and physical health during a nationwide COVID-19 lockdown. We leveraged an ongoing study in which participants had reported on their psychological and physical health prior to the pandemic. Participants then reported on the same health outcomes as well as their use of emotion regulation strategies, stress and emotion control difficulties during a nationwide lockdown involving confinement in the home for 5 weeks. Accounting for pre-pandemic psychological health, greater emotional suppression and rumination predicted greater depressive symptoms, lower emotional well-being, greater limitations due to emotional problems, and poorer social functioning during the lockdown, even when controlling for the detrimental effects of stress and emotion control difficulties. Accounting for pre-pandemic physical health, greater rumination predicted greater fatigue and poorer physical health, but the amount of stress people experienced was a stronger predictor across physical health outcomes. The results validate concerns that the stress of the pandemic risks declines in psychological and physical health and identify emotional suppression and rumination as important risk factors of poor psychological health during the COVID-19 pandemic.
covid-19
physical health
risk factor
suppression
psychological distress
emotion regulation
psychological health
stress, psychological, emotion, depressive, cope
longitudinal, depression, anxiety, distress, association
Change in Mental Health Symptoms During the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Role of Appraisals and Daily Life Experiences

Intro: When confronted with major threats such as the COVID-19 pandemic, people often experience (temporary) decline in well-being. The central purpose of this study was to identify mechanisms underlying stability and change of well-being in times of threat like the COVID-19 pandemic. We examined change in mental health symptoms and its relationships with appraisals of the pandemic and daily life experiences during the pandemic, including affective states, stress, and mindfulness. Methods: We conducted a study across 3.5 weeks, including pretest, posttest, and a diary phase in-between. In this report, we worked with a sample of 460 adults, pre- and post-test information, as well as a total of 7189 observations from the diary phase. Results: Results showed that less fortunate change in mental health symptoms across three weeks was predicted by more negative affect and less mindfulness, specifically less attention to the present moment, in daily life. Furthermore, less fortunate change in mental health symptoms was correlated with change towards less fortunate appraisals of the appraisals. Finally, we showed that more general views of the pandemic (i.e., appraisals) were interrelated to experiences in daily life, with more negative appraisals of the pandemic predicting more negative affect and stressor occurrence as well as less mindfulness. Discussion: These findings speak to the dynamic nature of well-being and appraisals in times of threat, and they show how experiences in daily life matter for change in well-being
covid-19
threat
mental health
stress
stability
study
daily life
affect
well-being
mindfulness
stress, psychological, emotion, depressive, cope
longitudinal, depression, anxiety, distress, association
Coronavirus Stress, Meaningful Living, Optimism, and Depressive Symptoms: A Study of Moderated Mediation Model

In the world, the COVID-19 pandemic has led to public mental health stress, anxiety, panic, and behavioral disorders. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether meaning in life mediated the relationship between coronavirus stress and depressive symptoms and whether the mediating effect of meaning in life on depressive symptoms was moderated by optimism. The sample of the study included 475 undergraduate students attending a public university in an urban city of Turkey. They were 69.2% female, ranged in age between 18 and 34 years (M = 20.63, SD = 1.99). Results showed that meaning in life and optimism–pessimism mediated the relationship between coronavirus stress and depressive symptoms. Optimism also mediated the relationship between meaning in life and depressive symptoms. Furthermore, optimism moderated the mediating effect of meaning in life in the relationship between coronavirus stress and depressive symptoms. These results indicated that the relationship between coronavirus stress and depressive symptoms can be better understood by meaning in life and optimism. Optimism may play a protective factor to mitigate the impact of stress on depressive symptoms
covid-19
mental health
stress
panic
study
anxiety
turkey
optimism
stress, psychological, emotion, depressive, cope
longitudinal, depression, anxiety, distress, association
Effect of the COVID-19 Pandemic and Big Five Personality on Subjective and Psychological Well-Being

The current study assessed the effect of the COVID-19 (coronavirus) pandemic on subjective well-being (SWB) and psychological well-being (PWB) and whether the pandemic moderated the effect of personality on well-being. Measures of Big Five personality, SWB (life satisfaction, positive affect, negative affect) and PWB (positive relations, autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, purpose in life, self-acceptance) were obtained from a sample (n = 1470) of young adults in Melbourne, Australia (13 July to 11 August, 2020) during a second wave of viral transmission and lockdown, and an identically recruited Pre-COVID sample (n = 547). Well-being was lower in the COVID sample and differences were largest for positive affect (d = -0.41) and negative affect (d = 0.64). While the effect of personality on well-being was robust, the effect of personality on well-being was slightly reduced and the effect of extraversion on positive affect was particularly attenuated during the pandemic.
covid-19
lockdown
second wave
wellbeing
young adults
australia
stress, psychological, emotion, depressive, cope
longitudinal, depression, anxiety, distress, association
Early Life Stress Predicts Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents During the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Mediating Role of Perceived Stress

Background: Exposure to early life stress (ELS) is alarmingly prevalent, and has been linked to the high rates of depression documented in adolescence. Researchers have theorized that ELS may increase adolescents’ vulnerability or reactivity to the effects of subsequent stressors, placing them at higher risk for developing symptoms of depression. Methods: We tested this formulation in a longitudinal study by assessing levels of stress and depression during the COVID-19 pandemic in a sample of adolescents from the San Francisco Bay Area (N=100; 43 male; ages 13-20 years) who had been characterized 4-7 years earlier (M=5.27, SD=0.75 years) with respect to exposure to ELS and symptoms of depression. Results: As expected, severity of ELS predicted levels of depressive symptoms during the pandemic (r(98)=0.25, p=.012), which were higher in females than in males (t(98)=-3.36, p=.001). Importantly, the association between ELS and depression was mediated by adolescents’ reported levels of stress, even after controlling for demographic and other COVID-19-related variables. Conclusions: These findings underscore the importance of monitoring the mental health of vulnerable children and adolescents during this pandemic and targeting perceived stress and isolation in high-risk youth.
covid-19
perception
intervention
mental health
stress
depression
adolescence
stress, psychological, emotion, depressive, cope
longitudinal, depression, anxiety, distress, association
Neuroticism and Emotional Risk During the Covid-19 Pandemic

Large-scale health crises, such as the Covid-19 pandemic, may evoke negative affective responses, which are closely linked to psychological maladjustment and psychopathology. Here, we shed light on the role of the personality trait neuroticism in predicting who is at risk and why. In a large-scale experience-sampling study based on a German convenience sample (N = 1,609; 38,120 momentary reports), individuals high in neuroticism experienced more negative affect in their daily lives during the Covid-19 pandemic. The effects of neuroticism on negative affect were substantially stronger than those of sociodemographic factors and personally experienced health threats. Underlying mechanisms included (a) higher attention to Covid-19-related information and higher engagement in Covid-19-related worries (crisis preoccupation), and (b) stronger negative affect during this preoccupation (affective reactivity). These findings highlight that global pandemics put not only people’s physical health at stake but also their psychological well-being and offer concrete starting points for large-scale prevention efforts.
covid-19
prevention
response
negative impact
factor
worry
psychological
personality
neuroticism
well-being
sociodemographic
stress, psychological, emotion, depressive, cope
longitudinal, depression, anxiety, distress, association
Depression, Environmental Reward, Coping Motives and Alcohol Consumption During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Increases in the incidence of psychological distress and alcohol use during the COVID-19 pandemic have been predicted. Environmental reward and self-medication theories suggest that increased distress and greater social/environmental constraints during COVID-19 could result in increases in depression and drinking to cope with negative affect. The current study had two goals: (1) to clarify the presence and direction of changes in alcohol use and related outcomes after the introduction of COVID-19 social distancing requirements, and; (2) to test hypothesized mediation models to explain individual differences in alcohol use during the early weeks of the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants (n = 1127) were U.S. residents recruited for participation in an online survey. The survey included questions assessing environmental reward, depression, COVID-19-related distress, drinking motives, and alcohol use outcomes (alcohol use; drinking motives; alcohol demand, and solitary drinking). Outcomes were assessed for two timeframes: the 30 days prior to state-mandated social distancing (‘pre-social-distancing’), and the 30 days after the start of state-mandated social distancing (‘post-social-distancing’). Depression severity, coping motives, and frequency of solitary drinking were significantly greater post-social-distancing relative to pre-social-distancing. Conversely, environmental reward and other drinking motives (social, enhancement, and conformity) were significantly lower post-social distancing compared to pre-social-distancing. Time spent drinking and frequency of binge drinking were greater post-social-distancing compared to pre-social-distancing, whereas typical alcohol quantity/frequency were not significantly different between timeframes. Indices of alcohol demand were variable with regard to change. Mediation analyses suggested a significant indirect effects of reduced environmental reward with drinking quantity/frequency via increased depressive symptoms and coping motives, and a significant indirect effect of COVID-related distress with alcohol quantity/frequency via coping motives for drinking. Results provide early evidence regarding the relation of psychological distress with alcohol consumption and coping motives during the early weeks of the COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, results largely converged with predictions from self-medication and environmental reinforcement theories. Future research will be needed to study prospective associations among these outcomes.
covid-19
social distancing
depression
psychology
individual differences
online survey
alcohol
coping
psychological distress
stress, psychological, emotion, depressive, cope
longitudinal, depression, anxiety, distress, association
Psychological Well-Being Under Conditions of Lockdown: An Experience Sampling Study in Austria During the COVID-19 Pandemic

The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and attendant lockdown measures present serious threats to psychological well-being worldwide. Here, we examined the extent to which being outdoors (versus indoors), the experience of loneliness, and screen-time are associated with psychological well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic using an experiencing sampling method. In April 2020, Austrian adults (N = 286, age M = 31.0 years) completed a 21-day experience sampling phase in which they reported their psychological well-being, whether they were indoors or outdoors, and loneliness at three random time-points each day, as well as their daily screen-time. Results indicated that being outdoors was associated with higher psychological well-being, whereas greater loneliness and greater daily screen-time were associated with poorer well-being. Additionally, the impact of loneliness on well-being was weaker when participants were outdoors than indoors. Temporal changes in well-being, loneliness, and screen-time across the 21 days were small. These results have health policy implications for the promotion of population well-being during pandemics.
covid-19
policy
lockdown
health
sampling
population
implication
loneliness
screen time
psychological
well-being
stress, psychological, emotion, depressive, cope
longitudinal, depression, anxiety, distress, association
Interest consistency can buffer the effect of COVID-19 fear on psychological distress

In the context of a recent outbreak of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19), the present study investigated the buffering effect of grit on the relationship between fear of COVID-19 and psychological distress. The data were collected from 224 Japanese participants (98 females; mean age = 46.56, SD = 13.41) in July 2020. The measures used in this study included the Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S), Short Grit Scale, and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale 21 (DASS). The results of mediation analyses revealed significant indirect effects of consistency of interest, a major component of grit, on psychological distress; we also found non-significant indirect effects of perseverance of effort, another major component of grit, on psychological distress. These results suggest that consistency of interest buffers the psychological distress induced by fear of COVID-19. Based on these results, it can be concluded that individuals with higher consistency of interest are less likely to experience worsening of their mental health, even if they experience fear of COVID-19 during the pandemic.
covid-19
mental health
fear
japan
psychological distress
effort
moral, belief, conspiracy, personality, trait
stress, psychological, emotion, depressive, cope