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longitudinal, depression, anxiety, distress, association

Topic 30

longitudinal depression anxiety distress association c19prc consortium overview finding wellbeing use casino factor examination frailty

Examining Risk and Protective Factors for Psychological Health during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has impacted the lives of people globally, and the significant mental health consequences of this pandemic are beginning to be documented. In addition to sociodemographic and COVID-19 specific factors, psychological risk and protective mechanisms likely influence individual differences in mental health symptoms in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. We examined associations between a broad set of risk and protective factors with symptoms of depression, anxiety, alcohol problems, and eating pathology, and investigated interactions between objective stress due to COVID-19 and risk/protective variables in predicting psychopathology. Methods: Participants were 877 adults (73.7% female) recruited via internet sources from around the globe, but primarily residing in North America (87.4%). Results: Structural equation modelling revealed that certain risk and protective factors (e.g., loneliness, latent protective factor, mindfulness) were broadly related to psychopathology, whereas others showed unique relations with specific forms of psychopathology (e.g., greater repetitive thinking and anxiety; low meaning and purpose and depression). COVID-19 objective stress interacted with risk factors, but not protective factors, to predict greater anxiety symptoms, but not other forms of psychopathology. Limitations: This is a cross-sectional study of non-randomly recruited participants who reported high levels of income and education. Rates of problematic alcohol use were low. Conclusions: Findings contribute to our understanding of psychological mechanisms underlying individual differences in psychopathology in the context of a global stressor. Strategies that reduce loneliness and increase mindfulness will likely impact the greatest number of mental health symptoms.
covid-19
pandemic
mental health
ann
depression
anxiety
psychopathology
stress, psychological, emotion, depressive, cope
longitudinal, depression, anxiety, distress, association
The unfolding COVID-19 pandemic: A probability-based, nationally representative study of mental health in the U.S.

The COVID-19 pandemic is a collective stressor unfolding over time, yet rigorous published empirical studies addressing mental health consequences of COVID-19 among large probability-based national samples are rare. Between 3/18-4/18/20, during an escalating period of illness and death in the United States, we assessed acute stress, depressive symptoms and direct, community, and media-based exposures to COVID-19 in three consecutive representative samples across three 10-day periods (total N=6,514) from the U.S. probability-based nationally representative NORC AmeriSpeak panel. Acute stress and depressive symptoms increased significantly over time as COVID-19 deaths increased across the U.S. Pre-existing mental and physical health diagnoses, daily hours of COVID-19-related media exposure, exposure to conflicting COVID-19 information in media, and secondary stressors were all associated with acute stress and depressive symptoms. Results have implications for targeting of public health interventions and risk communication efforts to promote community resilience as the pandemic waxes and wanes over time.
covid-19
big data
susceptibility
usa
longitudinal change
mental health
stress
depression
exposure
risk factor
stress, psychological, emotion, depressive, cope
longitudinal, depression, anxiety, distress, association
Exposure to COVID-19 Pandemic Stress: Associations with Depression and Anxiety in Emerging Adults in the U.S.

Background: Stressful events associated with the COVID-19 pandemic are likely to have significant effects on psychiatric symptoms, and well-validated methods for assessing psychosocial experiences related to the pandemic are needed. We developed the Pandemic Stress Questionnaire (PSQ) and tested its psychometric properties, characterized experiences in emerging adults, and examined associations with internalizing symptoms. Methods: Emerging adults (N=450) completed the PSQ and measures of internalizing symptoms and perceived stress through an online platform in May 2020. One month later, 288 participants completed a follow-up questionnaire to assess the stability of the PSQ and prospective associations between stress and internalizing symptoms. Results: Results supported the validity and stability of the PSQ and indicated that experiences of stress are highly prevalent, particularly among younger, female, and Black emerging adults. Pandemic-related stress was moderately associated with depression and anxiety at each assessment, but did not predict change in symptoms when controlling for baseline symptoms. Conclusions: The PSQ is a promising measure for assessing COVID-19 pandemic-related events in research and clinical practice. Results provide empirical support for the range of life disruptions as a result of the pandemic and highlight individual differences and experiences associated with the greatest risk for depression and anxiety.
covid-19
pandemic
symptom
stress
depression
questionnaire
young adult
anxiety
stress, psychological, emotion, depressive, cope
longitudinal, depression, anxiety, distress, association
Anxiety, Depression, Traumatic Stress, and COVID-19 Related Anxiety in the UK General Population During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Background The COVID-19 pandemic has created an unprecedented global crisis necessitating drastic changes to living conditions, social life, personal freedom and economic activity. No study has yet examined the presence of psychiatric symptoms in the UK population in similar conditions. Aims We investigated the prevalence of COVID-19 related anxiety, generalised anxiety, depression and trauma symptoms in a representative sample of the UK population during an early phase of the pandemic, and estimated associations with variables likely to influence these symptoms. Method Between March 23rd and March 28th 2020, a quota sample of 2025 UK adults 18 years and older, stratified by age, sex and household income, was recruited by online survey company Qualtrics. Participants completed measures of depression (PHQ9), generalised anxiety (GAD7), and trauma symptoms relating to the pandemic (ITQ). Bivariate and multivariate associations were calculated for age, gender, rural vs urban environment, presence of children in the household, income, loss of income, pre-existing health conditions in self and someone close, infection in self and someone close, and perceived risk of infection over the next month. Results Higher levels of anxiety, depression and trauma symptoms were reported compared to previous population studies, but not dramatically so. Meeting the criteria for either anxiety or depression, and trauma symptoms was predicted by young age, presence of children in the home, and high estimates of personal risk. Anxiety and depression symptoms were also predicted by low income, loss of income, and pre-existing health conditions in self and other. Specific anxiety about COVID-19 was greater in older participants. Conclusions The UK population, especially older citizens, were largely resilient in the early stages of the pandemic. However, several specific COVID-related variables are associated with psychological distress: particularly having children at home, loss of income because of the pandemic, as well as having a pre-existing health condition, exposure to the virus and high estimates of personal risk. Further similar surveys, particularly of those with children at home, are required as the pandemic progresses.
covid-19
infection
uk
risk perception
survey
symptom
mental health
stress
depression
children
internet
resilience
anxiety
adult
trauma
mental, italy, india, bangladesh, professional
longitudinal, depression, anxiety, distress, association
Posttraumatic stress symptoms and associated comorbidity during the COVID-19 pandemic in Ireland: A population based study

The prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as it relates to people’s experiences of the COVID-19 pandemic has yet to determined. This study was conducted to determine rates of COVID-19 related PTSD in the Irish general population, the level of comorbidity with depression and anxiety, and sociodemographic risk factors associated with COVID-19 related PTSD. A nationally representative sample of adults from the general population of the Republic of Ireland (N = 1,041) completed self-report measures of all study variables. The rate of COVID-19 related PTSD was 17.7% (95% CI = 15.35 - 19.99%: n=184), and comorbidity with generalized anxiety (49.5%) and depression (53.8%) was high. Meeting the diagnostic requirement for COVID-19 related PTSD was associated with younger age, male sex, living in a city, living with children, moderate and high perceived risk of COVID-19 infection, and screening positive for anxiety or depression. Traumatic stress problems related to the COVID-19 pandemic are common in the general population. Our results show that health professionals responsible for responding to the COVID-19 pandemic should expect to routinely encounter traumatic stress problems.
covid-19
stress
depression
study
ireland
anxiety
ptsd
mental, italy, india, bangladesh, professional
longitudinal, depression, anxiety, distress, association
Associations among state-level physical distancing measures and suicidal thoughts and behaviors among U.S. adults during the early COVID-19 pandemic

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify leading sources of stress, describe rates of mental health outcomes, and examine their associations among U.S. adults during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: In a cross-sectional, general population survey conducted from March 18 to April 4, 2020, U.S. adults (n=10,625) were recruited through Qualtrics Panels using quota sampling methods. Results: Life stressors, probable depression, past-month suicide ideation, and past-month suicide attempts were not elevated among participants subject to state-level stay-at-home orders and/or large gatherings bans. Multiple life stressors were associated with increased rates of probable depression. Past-month suicide ideation was significantly higher among participants reporting ongoing arguments with a partner and serious legal problems. Past-month suicide attempt was significantly higher among participants reporting concerns about a life-threatening illness or injury, but was significantly lower among participants reporting an unexpected bill or expense. Conclusions: Results failed to support the conclusion that physical distancing measures are correlated with worse mental health outcomes. Concerns about life-threatening illness or injury was uniquely associated with increased risk of suicide attempt.
covid-19
usa
mental health
stress
depression
study
physical distancing
suicide
stress, psychological, emotion, depressive, cope
longitudinal, depression, anxiety, distress, association
The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on College Student Mental Health: A Longitudinal Examination of Risk and Protective Factors

The spread of the novel coronavirus has led to unprecedented changes in daily living. College students (N = 205) completed a battery of questionnaires in April of 2020, after having completed similar measures 8, 5, and 2 months prior as part of a larger study. A repeated measures ANOVA suggested significantly greater depression and anxiety symptom severity during the pandemic than at any other time during the 2019-2020 academic year. Static and modifiable factors associated with psychological distress and controlling for pre-existing psychological distress were examined. Cognitive and behavioral avoidance was the most consistent predictor of psychological distress during the pandemic. Online social engagement and problematic Internet use also conferred greater risk. Women and Latinx participants were more likely to experience elevated distress during the pandemic, even when controlling for distress prior to the pandemic.
covid-19
risk
predictor
depression
impact
distress
anxiety
online
longitudinal
avoidance
mental, italy, india, bangladesh, professional
longitudinal, depression, anxiety, distress, association
Maternal Psychological Distress & Mental Health Services Use during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Family functioning has changed as a result of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Research on previous epidemics and pandemics suggest that families, specifically mothers, may be at an increased risk for mental health challenges. The current study (1) described prevalence rates of maternal depressive and anxiety symptoms, (2) identified risk and protective factors for clinically significant symptoms, and (3) described mental health service use and barriers. Participants (N = 643) were mothers of children age 0-8 years, including expectant mothers. Prevalence rates for depressive symptoms (33.9%, 42.2%, and 43.9%) and anxiety symptoms (34.4%, 32.6, 30.1%) were evaluated by child age group: age 0-18 months, 18 months to 4 years and 5 to 8 years, respectively. Risk and protective factors were identified for elevated mental health symptoms across child age groups. Results are discussed in terms of mental health prevention and intervention strategies and family policy recommendations.
covid-19
policy
risk
strategy
prevention
intervention
mental health
recommendation
depression
study
anxiety
family
mental, italy, india, bangladesh, professional
longitudinal, depression, anxiety, distress, association
Elevated depression and anxiety among pregnant individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic

Mental health problems are common in pregnancy, typically affecting between 10-25% of pregnant individuals. Elevated symptoms of depression and anxiety can negatively impact both the pregnant individual and developing fetus. The current COVID-19 pandemic is a unique stressor with potentially wide-ranging consequences for pregnancy and beyond. We assessed symptoms of anxiety and depression among pregnant individuals during the current COVID-19 pandemic and determined factors that were associated with psychological distress. 1987 pregnant participants were surveyed across Canada in April 2020. The assessment included questions about COVID-19-related stress and standardized measures of depression, anxiety, pregnancy-related anxiety, sleep and social support. We found substantially elevated psychological distress compared to similar pre-pandemic pregnancy cohorts, with 37% reporting clinically relevant symptoms of depression, 57% reporting clinically relevant symptoms of anxiety, and 68% reporting elevated pregnancy-related anxiety. Higher levels of social support and longer sleep duration were associated with lower psychological symptoms across domains. This study shows concerningly elevated levels of psychological distress among pregnant individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic, that may have long-term impacts on their children. Potential intervention targets are needed in addition to improving protective factors related to increased social support and sleep -- these should be urgently considered to mitigate long-term negative outcomes
covid-19
pandemic
intervention
mental health
stress
depression
anxiety
sleep
social support
psychiatry
mental, italy, india, bangladesh, professional
longitudinal, depression, anxiety, distress, association
Early Life Stress Predicts Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents During the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Mediating Role of Perceived Stress

Background: Exposure to early life stress (ELS) is alarmingly prevalent, and has been linked to the high rates of depression documented in adolescence. Researchers have theorized that ELS may increase adolescents’ vulnerability or reactivity to the effects of subsequent stressors, placing them at higher risk for developing symptoms of depression. Methods: We tested this formulation in a longitudinal study by assessing levels of stress and depression during the COVID-19 pandemic in a sample of adolescents from the San Francisco Bay Area (N=100; 43 male; ages 13-20 years) who had been characterized 4-7 years earlier (M=5.27, SD=0.75 years) with respect to exposure to ELS and symptoms of depression. Results: As expected, severity of ELS predicted levels of depressive symptoms during the pandemic (r(98)=0.25, p=.012), which were higher in females than in males (t(98)=-3.36, p=.001). Importantly, the association between ELS and depression was mediated by adolescents’ reported levels of stress, even after controlling for demographic and other COVID-19-related variables. Conclusions: These findings underscore the importance of monitoring the mental health of vulnerable children and adolescents during this pandemic and targeting perceived stress and isolation in high-risk youth.
covid-19
perception
intervention
mental health
stress
depression
adolescence
stress, psychological, emotion, depressive, cope
longitudinal, depression, anxiety, distress, association