SciBeh-Topic-Visualization

news, misinformation, internet, medium, fake

Topic 6

news misinformation internet medium fake app online information consumption search evaluate google trend article distrust

Evaluating the fake news problem at the scale of the information ecosystem

“Fake news,” broadly defined as false or misleading information masquerading as legitimate news, is frequently asserted to be pervasive online with serious consequences for democracy. Using a unique multimode dataset that comprises a nationally representative sample of mobile, desktop, and television consumption, we refute this conventional wisdom on three levels. First, news consumption of any sort is heavily outweighed by other forms of media consumption, comprising at most 14.2% of Americans’ daily media diets. Second, to the extent that Americans do consume news, it is overwhelmingly from television, which accounts for roughly five times as much as news consumption as online. Third, fake news comprises only 0.15% of Americans’ daily media diet. Our results suggest that the origins of public misinformedness and polarization are more likely to lie in the content of ordinary news or the avoidance of news altogether as they are in overt fakery.
usa
misinformation
media
research
disinformation
information
fake news
news
citation
news, misinformation, internet, medium, fake
machine, twitter, learn, technology, application
News media and distrust in scientific experts
July 6, 2020 · · Original resource · blog

US televised news networks offer strikingly different coverage of the COVID-19 pandemic, the exposure risks, and the benefits of social distancing measures recommended by health experts. This column devises an empirical strategy to test for a causal effect of news viewership on compliance with social distancing. It finds a large effect of local Fox News viewership on local compliance, with a persuasion rate of up to 26%. These findings reinforce concerns about the media’s role in sowing distrust in scientific evidence in the determination of public policies.  
covid-19
concern
compliance
epidemiology
expertise
empirical evidence
science
media
news
distrust
news, misinformation, internet, medium, fake
political, attitude, partisan, democracy, ideology
Auditing local news presence on Google News

Local news outlets have struggled to stay open in the more competitive market of digital media. Some have noted that this decline may be due to the ways in which digital platforms direct attention to some news outlets and not others. To test this theory, we collected 12.29 million responses to Google News searches within all US counties for a set of keywords. We compared the number of local outlets reported in the results against the number of national outlets. We find that, unless consumers are searching specifically for topics of local interest, national outlets dominate search results. Features correlated with local supply and demand, such as the number of local outlets and demographics associated with local news consumption, are not related to the likelihood of finding a local news outlet. Our findings imply that platforms may be diverting web traffic and desperately needed advertising dollars away from local news.
media
has
ann
united states
us
news, misinformation, internet, medium, fake
machine, twitter, learn, technology, application
How Right-Leaning Media Coverage of COVID-19 Facilitated the Spread of Misinformation in the Early Stages of the Pandemic

In recent weeks, several academic and journalistic outlets have documented widespread misinformation about the origins and potential treatment for COVID-19. This misinformation could have important public health consequences if misinformed people are less likely to heed the advice of public health experts. While some have anecdotally tied the prevalence of misinformation to misleading or inaccurate media coverage of the pandemic in its early stages, few have rigorously tested this claim empirically. In this paper, we report the results of an automated content analysis showing that right-leaning news outlets (e.g., Fox News, Breitbart) were more than 2.5 times more likely than mainstream outlets to discuss COVID-19 misinformation during the early stages of the U.S. pandemic response. In a nationally representative survey (N = 8,914) conducted from 3/10-3/16, we then show that people who consumed more right-leaning news during this timeframe were more than twice as likely to endorse COVID-related misinformation. Alarmingly, survey data further suggest that misinformation endorsement has negative public health consequences, as misinformed people are more likely to believe that the CDC is exaggerating COVID-related health risks.
covid-19
big data
misinformation
belief
survey
early stage
prevalence
media coverage
endorsement
right-wing
news, misinformation, internet, medium, fake
intention, behavior, message, guideline, preventive
Emphasizing publishers does not effectively reduce susceptibility to misinformation on social media

Survey experiments with nearly 7,000 Americans suggest that increasing the visibility of publishers is an ineffective, and perhaps even counterproductive, way to address misinformation on social media. Our findings underscore the importance of social media platforms and civil society organizations evaluating interventions experimentally rather than implementing them based on intuitive appeal.
susceptibility
misinformation
survey
social media
experiment
society
organization
news, misinformation, internet, medium, fake
intention, behavior, message, guideline, preventive
The Relation between Media Consumption and Misinformation at the Outset of the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic in the US

A US national probability-based survey during the early days of the SARS-CoV-2 spread in the US showed that, above and beyond respondents’ political party, mainstream broadcast media use (e.g., NBC News) correlated with accurate information about the disease’s lethality, and mainstream print media use (e.g., the New York Times) correlated with accurate beliefs about protection from infection. In addition, conservative media use (e.g., Fox News) correlated with conspiracy theories including believing that some in the CDC were exaggerating the seriousness of the virus to undermine the presidency of Donald Trump. Five recommendations are made to improve public understanding of SARS-CoV-2.
covid-19
usa
misinformation
conspiracy theory
public
media
understanding
consumption
trump
news, misinformation, internet, medium, fake
intention, behavior, message, guideline, preventive
One in four popular YouTube coronavirus videos contain misinformation, study finds
May 14, 2020 · · Original resource · news

One in four of the most popular English-language YouTube videos about the coronavirus contains misinformation, according to a study published Wednesday in the journal BMJ Global Health.For the study, researchers from the University of Ottawa analyzed 69 of the most widely-viewed English language videos from a single day in March and found 19 contained non-factual information, garnering more than 62 million views. Misinformation, according to the researchers, included any video that contained false information on the transmission, symptoms, prevention strategies, treatments and epidemiology of the coronavirus.Internet news sources were most likely to misinform, though entertainment, network and internet news outlets were all sources of misinformation, according to the study. None of the most popular professional and government videos contained misinformation. The new study implies that because of YouTube’s size and continued growth, misinformation about the coronavirus has reached more people than in past public health crises, including H1N1 and Ebola.
covid-19
misinformation
government
social media
video
youtube
cdc, doctor, trump, eviction, official
news, misinformation, internet, medium, fake
Who Is Susceptible to Online Health Misinformation?

Although everyone has the potential to be misled by false information, online misinformation is not an equal opportunity aggressor. Some of us are more likely to believe misinformation than are others and serve as vectors by sharing it on social media. To effectively combat misinformation on social media, it is crucial to understand the underlying factors that lead certain people to believe and share false and misleading content online. A growing body of research has tackled this issue by investigating who is susceptible to online misinformation and under what circumstances. This literature can help shape future research and interventions to address health misinformation. We provide a brief overview of what we know about who is susceptible and what we still have to learn.
covid-19
susceptibility
misinformation
behavioral science
belief
disproportionate impact
health
overview
social media
sharing
intervention
truth
news, misinformation, internet, medium, fake
intention, behavior, message, guideline, preventive
News and the city: understanding online press consumption patterns through mobile data

The always increasing mobile connectivity affects every aspect of our daily lives, including how and when we keep ourselves informed and consult news media. By studying a DPI (deep packet inspection) dataset, provided by one of the major Chilean telecommunication companies, we investigate how different cohorts of the population of Santiago De Chile consume news media content through their smartphones. We find that some socio-demographic attributes are highly associated to specific news media consumption patterns. In particular, education and age play a significant role in shaping the consumers behaviour even in the digital context, in agreement with a large body of literature on off-line media distribution channels.
education
connectivity
media
age
information
news
smartphone
demographics
consumption
urban
city
online behavior
dataset
news, misinformation, internet, medium, fake
machine, twitter, learn, technology, application
How search engines disseminate information about COVID-19 and why they should do better

Access to accurate and up-to-date information is essential for individual and collective decision making, especially at times of emergency. On February 26, 2020, two weeks before the World Health Organization (WHO) officially declared the COVID-19’s emergency a “pandemic,” we systematically collected and analyzed search results for the term “coronavirus” in three languages from six search engines. We found that different search engines prioritize specific categories of information sources, such as government-related websites or alternative media. We also observed that source ranking within the same search engine is subjected to randomization, which can result in unequal access to information among users. 
covid-19
who
access
decision-making
government
technology
social media
information
priority
dissemination
search engine
news, misinformation, internet, medium, fake
machine, twitter, learn, technology, application